Generosity comes in many forms, according to Smith, director of Notre Dame’s Science of Generosity Initiative. “This includes time, aid, attention, blood, possessions, encouragement, emotional investment and more," he has said. “In countless ways, the world wants for significant growth in the virtue of giving.” Smith’s research focuses largely on the means and motivation by which people give – or don’t – and is currently leading the $5 million Science of Generosity project, funded by the John Templeton Foundation. His books include “Passing the Plate: Why American Christians Don’t Give Away More Money,” written with Michael Emerson and Patricia Snell, which explores the reported statistic that American Christian groups typically give away only 1.5% to 2% of their income, as well as “Moral, Believing Animals: Human Personhood and Culture,” “Christian America? What Evangelicals Really Want,” and “Soul Searching: The Religious and Spiritual Lives of American Teenagers,” which received a 2006 book award from Christianity Today magazine.